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Good morning, everybody. Hello. Welcome to my webinar, today. I'm Amanda Chadwick, and I'm a Senior Speaker, Presenter at Peninsula Business Services Limited. Peninsula Business Services Limited is an employment law consultancy, the largest one in Europe. Been around for over 30 years, now. And currently, helps over 28,000 businesses, throughout the UK, by integrating themselves within their businesses, and supporting them with everyday letter writing, application forms, job interviews, personal specifications, minimum wage, etcetera. Right through to ensuring them for Tribunal.So, that's what we do. That's our head office, right in front of you, there. Right in the halls of Manchester. And I'm Amanda Chadwick. So, today, we're talking about young workers. And because we're talking about young workers, I thought I'd also talk about children, as well, because lots of people that we work with do still employ children, whether it's a paper route or whatever. So, I'm going to talk about the law, health and safety, what the requirements are, etcetera.So, summary. Okay. Well, I think, the summary I'm going to start with, is my experience, really. And to say that back in the day, I know, in the very, very early 80's, maybe the turn of the late 70's, early 80's, I had a job. I was working from 12 years old of age. And I used to work at a market store. And my mum said to me, "If you want the plastic earrings that are popular in the 80's, you want the trousers Olivia Newton-John's wearing for Grease, we can't afford to buy you them. So you have to get a little bit of a job." So I started babysitting. And then, I worked for markets, lifting and carrying.And then, that was on a Thursday evening, and a Saturday. Got a few quid, I could treat myself. And then, I went home. When I left school at 15, whilst I was waiting to go to college, I think you've heard me mention this before, I started working at Kipling's Bakers. It's amazing, isn't it? Nobody checked my age. Nobody did a reference check. They just took what I put down on the application form, told them, as read. That was it. That was actually, that was it. I got the job. And so, from 15, from when I left school in April, May, through to when I started college this September, it was, really, the end of September. I worked at Kipling's Bakers, in a warehouse, lifting boxes. And sticking the stickers on those mini chocolate rolls that say, "Real chocolates," with my fingers, literally. And I'm sure there's a machine that does it, now. But that was what I did. And you've heard me talk about discrimination, and harassment, before. And I've spoken about my experience as a young worker. I had a brilliant job. I loved it, because it paid really good wages. Until I started college in September. I pretended I was 16 to get the job. They never checked. I was in an environment that actually had forklift trucks. Very risky environment. And I was the only girl working there. And, in fact, in one of the breakout areas, which is a caravan parked in the middle of the warehouse, it was plastered with pornographic material. The men smoked in there. And they treated me, brilliantly, actually. That was the culture in those days. I was treated fairly. I was treated brilliantly. I got brilliant wages. My experience, as a young worker, although, now it sounds barbaric, was actually really, very good. And from there, what I did, is I went to college. I then, went on a YTS from the college placement. And I started working at Hertz Rental Car, taking on with them about six to eight weeks. I was the youngest employee for Hertz Rental Car. And then, the rest is history. Doing training, etcetera. And I can say the YTS did me a great favor, very much like the apprenticing, now. Because it gave me a chance to walk into a company, with little skills or little qualifications, just what I'd learned at college. And to take it with me, and to learn from some of the best people ever, and treat me some brilliant trades. And within a year, I was training people, within Hertz Rental Car, with the training courses they did. Flying around the country, at the age of 17. And they treated me like an adult, with respect. And I became fulltime with them. And I stayed there for quite a while. And it was an absolutely brilliant opportunity. Great foot in the door. But what my boss said to me, at the time, was "While you're in a YTS, you get paid 25 pound a week. You're willing to put up with the teething problems that you have." And this is the point with apprenticeships, etcetera. When you take them on, because they are a little wage, you have to be a little bit more careful. Give them a little bit more leeway, as an apprenticeship. But again, still put rules in place. We'll talk about that. I also think, by taking young workers on, you get a fresh approach within your company. They have new ideas, especially if you're using a graduate. You've got the benefit of bringing a graduate into your business. You're bringing a young worker in, somebody apprenticing. And what you're getting is somebody with fresh ideas, new ideas. And maybe going into a company where they've never used technology before, Facebook, and things like that, for marketing, they can really bring new light and new business to your company. And, obviously, young workers come with problems. We'll talk about some of them, later on. And then, what we'll do, is we'll talk about the health and safety side of it. So, young workers, the legal responsibilities involved in the employment of people who are under 18, are different to those involved with employing adults, okay? We have a little bit more leeway with them. The law, mainly relating to working time entitlements, is different when the employee is under the age of 18. An employer should be aware of the differences, so that they can comply, and to assure compliance. We're going to cover that, in a moment. Employment law, covering "Under 18s," is broadly split into two categories. Rules effecting those, under school age, children, and then, rules affecting those over school age, young workers. So, the working time regulations, you've heard me talk about this. This is one of the biggest complaints in Tribunal, if not the biggest. This involves breaks. It involves holidays. It involves working hours, etcetera. So, young workers, and the working time regulations. What are your responsibilities, as the employer? And so, there are special regulations for young workers. You need to know this when you're taking somebody one. The rest break for a young worker is 30 minutes. If their work lasts more than four and a half hours. And for a regular worker, and by the way, I'm giving you an overview on law, here. When I say, "regular worker," I'm not talking about people that work in cold environments, etcetera. Your regular worker, would work six hours, and then get a 20 minute break. But with a young worker, that rest break is 30 minutes, if their work lasts more than four and a half hours. If working for more than one employer, the time worked for each one, should be added together, to see if you can have a rest break. So, I've taken somebody on, under the age of 18. They're working for me. I don't know, but they're actually working down the road, at another business, as a hairdresser, for example. Hairdressing apprentice. Well, I should be taking the hours worked within that business, and adding them to mine. And they actually could be entitled to a break, as soon as they start working for me. So, we need to know if they're working for another employer. So, what you need to do, in your handbooks, we'll cover this later on, is have a term and condition, that allows you to find that out. And when you take a young worker on, it's to say to them, "If you work elsewhere, including voluntary work, you have to let me know." So, if working for more than one employer, the time worked for each one should be added together, to see if you can have a rest break. Okay? Rest breaks must be taken in one block. Not staggered or broken up. They've got to be taken in one block. So, let's think of the hairdressers. Let's think of the shop environments, retail environments. Let's think about those people, that work in those type of businesses. And they have interrupted rest breaks, yet, they're a young worker. These protective measures are in place, for a reason, to protect their health. So, remember that, because that's one of the biggest mistakes than an employer makes. Is that, they don't let them take their rest breaks in one block. They stagger them, they break them up. They give them two 15 minute breaks. That's not right. Rest breaks are 30 minutes, if they've had more than four and a half hours work. I think, as well, that you've got to remember that those rest breaks are there for a reason. So, make sure that they're taken somewhere, in the middle of their work period, and not at the end, okay? So, finishing early, no. It's a "no-no." It's got to be a taken in the middle. And there are some exemptions to this, including whether the employer requires the young worker to undertake work necessary, to maintain continuity of service or production. So, there are certain exemptions. And that's something that we can help you with. If any of our clients are listening, and they're using young workers. And, for example, they've come across the fact that some of them are taking their rest break at the end or taking it broken. Contact us, we'll help you manage that. The young worker's educational training must not be adversely affected, by working for the extra hours. So, if they're having educational extra training or they're with their apprenticeship or their job, by working for you, it shouldn't be adversely affected. If the worker subsequently misses a break, the young worker should be supervised, when necessary, for the young worker's protection. So, if they do miss a break, for some reason, such as, we've got a big workload on, and you're going to give them the break later on. And, remember, only exceptional circumstances, and take advice on this, but if they miss a break, what you should be doing, the young worker should be supervised. Because they could become tired, and, also, they could have an accident. The worker must also be given compensatory rest. So, that's the working time regulations, part of it. And the young workers. Let's continue with this. There is restricted working hours, for a young worker. They're only allowed to work eight hours per day. And 40 hours per week. Remember, within any of what I'm talking about, in the working time regulations, and young workers, there is no opt out. Regulations, generally, prohibit young workers from working between the hours of midnight and 4 a.m. And, I think, that explains itself, really, doesn't it? After 12:00 or 4:00 in the morning, for a young worker, they're young, they could be exhausted. So, it's not a good time to let somebody work at that age. These restrictions do not apply when the young worker is employed in certain industries. For example, in hospitals or similar establishments. And this is where you need help and guidance, if you are an industry that may be using young workers, between the hours of midnight and 4 a.m., you need to take expert advice. Young workers are also entitled to two days off, each week. A twelve hour break, in between each shift. And no opt out, as I said. So, how this is different than regular working time regulations, is that an ordinary worker would be entitled to one day off, each week. And 11 hour break, between each shift. So you can see, that there is a difference between young worker regulations, and an ordinary worker that's above the age of 18. But also, as well, with somebody that's over 18, they can work more than 48 hours a week. And on top of that, they have the right, if they want to, to opt out. So, young workers and children. Well, part-time work. The youngest age a child can work, part-time, is 13, except children involved in areas, like, television, theater or modeling. Children working in these areas would need a performance license. And I know we've got some people listening, today, that are working in the modeling trade, and the artistic trade. So, this is really relevant for these people. Performance licenses are issued by the local council. And before giving a child a performance license, the council will talk to the head teacher, of the relevant child's school. This is to make sure the child's education won't suffer, if they work in TV, theater or modeling. A child taking part in a performance, including TV, film, theater, paid sporting activities or modeling, has to have a chaperone with them. Usually, it would be their parent, I think, in most cases. Children can only start full-time work at the last Friday in June, of the academic year, when they turn 16. This is the minimum school leaving age. After a child has reached the minimum school leaving age, they can work up to a maximum 40 hours a week. Now, from my experience, and working with employers all over the UK, a lot of employers, now, what we have is . . . have you been in the shopping centers, you see young adults walking around with their CDs. Popping them into . . . for example, my shopping precinct, that's near me, and the retail part, which is, I think, exactly the same everywhere, throughout the country. You've got Tesco's Stores. You've got Costa Coffee, WH Smith. You've got a Dorothy Perkins, River Island. Next. Everywhere you go, it's, like, that is the shops that everybody shops in. And you have one everywhere, don't you? But what I can say to you, is those young workers, they walk around, don't you, with their CD's going, "Have you got any jobs going?" And the actual manager of the shop says, "Are you over 16? And have you left school, yet?" And they double check it. And they're just really frightened. People are frightened at taking somebody in, under the age of 16. And the reason because of that, is because they don't know the law. And in some companies, they say, "We're not taking somebody under that age of 18." Now, be very careful of that, because that's age discrimination. And, especially, if we're talking about care workers, for example. Somebody might say, "Oh, we can't have a carer that's under the age of 18." There's no law for that. That's something they've made up. And what if that person has been a carer for their mother or father or somebody close to them, that's got multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or some sort of illness? And they've managed and cared for them, from a very young age? They've got a very good argument, as to why they could be a carer, because they have years of experience. What their care standards wouldn't hurt to say is, "Somebody under the age of 18, in a supervisory role." So, be very careful of refusing somebody a job based on their age, because it could be age discrimination. So, reminder, children can only start full-time work after the last Friday, in June, in the academic year, when they turn 16. This is what we call the minimum school leaving age. After a child has reached the minimum school leaving age, they can work up to a maximum of 40 hours a week. School age children are not entitled to the national minimum wage. Once someone reaches 18, adult employment rights kick in, and rules then apply. And remember, the minute I walk through your door, on day, I've got over 78 rights, anyway. So, just be very, very careful of that. And make sure you're aware of it. So, employing children. There are several restrictions on when and where children are allowed to work. And so, I'm going to go through a list of this, okay? Children are not allowed to work without an employment permit, issued by the education department of the local council, if this is required, by local bylaws. In places, like, a hatchery or industrial sites, during school hours, before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m., for more than one hour before school, unless local bylaws allow it. For more than four hours, without taking a break or of, at least, an hour. In most jobs, in pubs and shops, and those prohibited in local bylaws. And any work that may be harmful to their health, well-being or education. And without having a two week break from any work, during the school holidays, in each calendar year. There are also special rules, which only apply during term time, and school holiday times. And remember, local bylaws may apply. And if so, contact your local education department. So, employing children, generally, children age 13 and under, are not permitted to work. Exceptionally, and with the implementation of regional bylaws, 13 year olds may do light work. Example, a paper route. 14 year olds must not work before 7 a.m. and after 7 p.m., on any day. More than two hours, on any school day. During school hours. More than five hours on a Saturday or a weekday. During school holidays. More than two hours, on a Sunday. More than 12 hours, in a school week, and more than 25 hours a week, during school holidays. That's easy to manage. So, you can take people on, over the age of 14, if you really put your mind to it. And give people the opportunity, actually, to get a work ethic. And I think we're missing that now. A lot of children aren't having the opportunity to work, as they would've done, because employers are frightened. They're even frightened of taking children on for work experience, through school. So, we're going to come back to young workers, in a moment, but just to finish off, with employing young children, there are rules for 15 and 16 year olds, who are not over the compulsory school age. It's, largely, the same of what I'd just mentioned for 14 year olds, but with the following alterations. So, they're allowed to work eight hours on a Saturday or on weekends, weekdays, during school holidays. So, no more than eight hours. No more than 35 hours a week, during school holidays. All employees who are still of compulsory school age, must have a break of one hour, if they work continuously, for more than four hours. Now, I can tell you, that I was in Tesco's, the other day, shopping. There's a young man serving me. And he said, "I'm actually at sixth form. I work here to earn extra money." Said, "It's absolutely brilliant. I did a little bit of overtime, at Christmas. I made a bit of money up." He said, "I have a few hundred pound, which I would never have had, before. And I was able to do one of the outbound courses that I wanted to do, as part of my coursework." So, giving people the chance to earn extra money, people, also, who are over compulsory school age, are entitled to receive national minimum wage. This means, that there will be some 16 year olds, who should be paid minimum wage. On the other hand, there will be some 16 year olds, who are not entitled to it. So, let's go back again. Sorry. Let me just go back. I just missed a slide, there. I quickly double clicked. So, let's go back to the young workers, here. So, young workers, and wages. So, how much is the minimum wage? Well, I've put it here. And just remind you, that the actual recording of this is available on YouTube, later on. So, if you've missed anything off it, you can listen to me, again, on YouTube. We've actually stopped sending the slides out, after so many days, because, obviously, the expiry on them. And just to remind you, as well, these slides are copy written. So, just to remind you of this, it's just that we get a lot of requests, after, maybe, seven months, the slides, something that happened seven months earlier. But this will be on YouTube, so you can access this, later on. So, the minimum wage, under 18 year old, 3 pound, 72 per hour. I'm not going to read the slide out to you, all the way through. But this, just 20 year olds, 5 pound, and 3 pence per hour. And 21 or older, 6 pound, 31 per hour. And remember, if you are receiving accredited training, and have been in the post for less than six months, they can be paid less. But it must be, at least, 5 pound, 3 pence per hour. Accredited training means it's government approved, vocational course, like, an MBQ. Not you saying, "You're in a training session." It's actually MBQ recognized training. I know some employers that use it as an excuse not to pay what they should be paying. And, also, I can think of one apprentice, that I know of, at the moment, that is so being exploited. Turning up at 7, finishing at 7, getting less than the minimum wage. And works out about 4 pound an hour, they get it. But they are over the age of 18. And they really are being exploited. So, don't exploit these young workers, because you're trying to give them a good work ethic, for the future. Apprentices age under 19 years, get 2 pounds, 68 per hours. Apprentices, age, 19 years or more, but in the first year apprenticeship, it's 2 pounds, 68 per hour. Okay. So, young workers problems. What problems do we encounter with young workers? Well, it is their first job. So, they've come straight out of school. They've come straight out of education, maybe. And what's happened, is they've never worked before. Okay? So, I know, for example, my son, yesterday, I took him to school. And he's had a few problems with a couple of lads at school. But he was really, really adamant. He wasn't getting out of the car in the morning, because it was "Dress Down Day," at school. I made him wear a pair of jog bottoms, because it was a health day. He was going, "They're all going to take Mickey out of me." Let me just assure you, everybody, I don't dress my son funnily, in any way. And he was making a thing, that he wasn't going into school. The week before, he had a bad tummy, for one reason or another. And he thinks he can just not go into school, when he feels like it. The problem you've got with this, is if you don't build an ethic into somebody in the school ages, then when they come to school, they're going to still have that attitude with work. So, it's their first job. "I've got a bit of a headache. I'm not going in to work, today. I've got a bit of a bad tummy. I've got a sore throat. I'm having an issue, I can't cope with this. I'm not going into school." And they've got to buckle up, and get a work ethic. But you, also, have to realize that they are a young worker, and you might have some teething problems. And I'll always say to you, speaking to your staff really works. Now, if I had a young worker in front me, I would speak to them about, "When you're at school, this is acceptable. But in work, it's letting the other colleagues down. You are part of a team. We understand that you might have some issues with training, etcetera. If you do, come to us. Speak to us. We'll have a meeting, once a week with you. We'll have an Open Door Policy. If you feel like there's anything troubling you, you can come to us." So, making that Open Door Policy, they've never had experience of rules, anyway. So, when they ring in sick, no texting, not using the mobile phone, they've had no experience of standards and expectations, either. And they've had no experience of health and safety. So, this is all brand new to them. It is so important why you would do an introduction on day one, to say that they're having the training, and giving them an idea of what your expectations of them are. But also, as well, they're not going to take the job real seriously, unless you make them take the job real seriously. Now, luckily, I had a good mother and father, that really grounded into me, "You want something nice in life, you've got to work hard for it. You want a house, you want a car? We're not going to help you. We haven't got the monies to help you. You've got to find the money, yourself. And the only way you're going to do that, is by working." So, I worked incredibly hard. I try and grind that into my children, as well, by giving them a work ethic. But, you see, and some people, when they get the first job, when they first get out of school or college, they can't believe their luck. They're keeping their nose clean by doing everything right. But then, you get the odd person, who absolutely will ring in sick. Will ring in late. Will do things that disrupt the business. And there's plenty of other people out there, eventually, that would want that job more than they would. And there's only so much you can take. But it's about managing that young person, and knowing when to go. So, remember to consider the age, though, if you are holding a disciplinary, an investigation or appeal. And remember, employment rights, such as paternity and maternity, do apply to young workers. Don't make mistakes by thinking they don't. So, let me give you an example of this. A garage. Okay? In North Wales, can't tell you the area. A middle age man works there. His partner becomes pregnant, okay? Young man works there. He's 17 years of age. His partner becomes pregnant. And he requests paternity leave. He's refused it. Yet, the middle age man gets it. That's age discrimination. Be very, very careful of it. Maternity applies to young workers, as well. So, young worker problems. We've got the mobile phone side of it, okay? I think I mentioned it, the other day, when I was doing my broadcast, the other day. My son, the one that I'm getting to school, at the minute, he, actually, is a very good boy. He works really hard at school. Not like the eldest daughter that we have, who is an absolute nightmare. But I can tell you, I've learned it from her. She's taught me many tricks of the trade, when dealing with teenagers. Happily, she's now settled down with a partner, and a couple of kids. But I can tell you, through teenage years, she was an absolute nightmare. Organized work experience, she never turned up for. She'd use a mobile. I got her a job as an apprentice hairdresser, around the corner from us. And she would be on the phone, all the time. Texting. Ringing up. Arguing with the boyfriend. I know, from experience, she'd be on the mobile phone, until 1, 2, 3 in the morning, texting. On Facebook, social networking sites. I know some of you, now, are going, "Oh. I'm going through that as well." And I've put my foot down, now, with mobile phones, and children. And, literally, when they get to a certain age, and they ask for a mobile, which is, hopefully, in double figures, they then have a mobile. But then, I have restrictions on when they can use it. And actually tell them it interferes with their education, and their sleep pattern, as well. Which, it can cause stress and depression. So, mobile phones, though, and young workers in the workplace, absolute nightmare. So, what we're going to do, straight away, when we take these young workers on, is we're going to highlight things that might be a trend with young workers, such as, mobile phones. So, we're going to have a checklist, with young workers. We're going to say, "Right. Okay. We've got a mobile phone policy, here. And I cannot emphasize, strongly enough, how we do not tolerate the use of mobile phones, within the workplace, because of health and safety. We also don't tolerate the use of iPods, as well. And we don't, because of health and safety, and listening to the fire alarm. You need to make sure, that if you want the job with me, you're working here, these are my rules. And I want you to sign to say that you understand them, because you could cause an accident. So, this is the mobile phone policy. And also, you can't record things, listen to music. But also, I know you've got Facebook account, I know you've got your other social networking accounts. You can say the industry that you work for, but you can't actually say the company you work for. I don't want you to talk about employees, fellow colleagues or anything you do at work, on your Facebook site." And reinforce it, so strongly. Especially with a young worker, so they know, definitely, that it's so important. It forms part of the disciplinary process. Okay? You might even have a check in, a section, where they leave the mobile phone, when they walk into the business. And that they actually leave the mobile phone. But they can have access to it, at the breaks or lunch hour. Lateness and sickness, also, is a problem. So, having a lateness policy, and, again, a little bit more lenient with a young worker, and apprentice, when they first started. Little bit more kid gloves. You are half expectedly to treat apprentice, a little bit more carefully. So, lateness. Having a lateness policy, to emphasize that we do deduct money from you, if you are late. Sickness, as well. Headaches can't be managed with headache tablets. Do we return to work? Your day is taking time off, even from day one. Making sure that they don't text it, but they actually ring it. And also, conduct and attitude, speaking to them about what that conduct is, and attitude. And having a capability policy, and managing conduct, and attitude. So, you might want to, at the very start of employment, just say, "These are some of the things we've experienced, in the past, with young workers. We're not saying we're going to have a problem with you, but what we are going to point out, is some of the common trends that we do get with young workers. And we want to talk to you about them. And our handbook, that we've got in place, to manage it." Okay? So, conduct and attitude. Talking to them about not taking things seriously, "These are some of the problems that we have." Not understanding the importance of health and safety, like, not wearing their hardhat. Not wearing their steel toe cup boots. Using a compressed air machine, when they shouldn't be. One of them losing their eye, which happened to somebody that I know. And, also, people that might pick up equipment, that they're not trained on. So, what you need to know, is that you need to train your young workers. Make sure that your young workers aren't left unattended. So, you'll want to look at your ordinary workers handbooks, and make sure that when they're taking breaks, that they don't leave young workers or people that aren't trained or apprenticeship people unattended. And that they have a responsibility, the duty of care, to the young worker, and the apprenticeships, as well. But also, as well, that you know that you've got your training spot on both, for your young worker apprenticeships, but also, for your staff that manage them. So, what that all says about young people at work, and health and safety. Under health and safety law, every employer must insure, so far, as reasonable, practicable, the health and safety of all their employees, irrespective of age. You know this, anyway. As part of this, there are certain considerations that need to be made for young people. Definitions of young people and children by age, a young person is anyone under the age of 18. And a child is anyone who has not yet reached the official minimum school leaving age, MSLA. Peoples will reach the MSLA, the school year in which they turn 16. So, that is the health and safety's definition of a young worker. Under the management of health and safety, and work regulations 1999, an employer has a responsibility to ensure that young people employed by them are not exposed to risk, due to lack of experience. So, if you know that somebody's come into your business with a lack of experience, you need to make sure they're managed. They're controlled. You might have an agreement, where they're not allowed into restricted areas. And that also have a supervisor with them, at all times. That, due to being unaware of additional, potential risks or lack of maturity, an employer must consider the layout of the workplace. That's walking through areas that they might be at risk of, in their age. And their need to touch something, for example, the physical, biological, and chemical agents that they will be exposed to. How they will handle work equipment. How they will work and processes are organized. The extent of health and safety training needed. And risks from particular agents, the processes, and the work, as well. So, employers do need to consider whether the work the young person will do, might be beyond their physical or psychological capacity. And that's your responsibility to find that out. Remember, this is as simple as checking. If a young person is capable of safely lifting weights, remembering and following instruction. If it involves harmful exposure to substances that are toxic, that can cause cancer, can damage or harm an unborn child or can chronically effect human health, in any other way, make sure that legal limits on that. So, again, what I always recommend in everybody's handbook, anyway, but especially for young workers, just because somebody's 16, doesn't mean, to say, they're not going to be pregnant. Okay? What we're going to have is a statement in the handbook, to protect the employer and HR, that it says, "If you are preggy, you have to let us know, at the earliest stage possible, so we can make health and safety standards, necessary for them to do the job." So, you make sure that you have statements in place. Again, for health and safety, as well. For health and management, and delegation of responsibility, authorities. The right training, the right documents. And the right risk assessments. So, radiation, a young person's exposure to radiation is restricted, and does not exceed the allowed dose limits. This might be a dental practice, for example. Minimum risk of accidents that cannot, reasonably, recognize or avoid by young people, but might be due to their insufficient attention to safety or lack of experience or their training. Be aware that a young person might be unfamiliar with obvious risks. So, good management would be to consider the need for tailored training or even close supervision. And be very careful. As I said with this, if your ordinary workers are going off for a fag together, and leaving the young workers unsupervised, who is a risk to yourself, and the young worker, and to your business, as well. Having controlled measures in place, when exposed to extreme cold, heat, noise or vibration. So, tree surgeon, training tree surgeons, that's the White Finger. The vibration. The noise in the environment. Working within a hot environment or cold environment. And remember, child must never carry out such work, involving these risks. Whether they are permanently employed or under training, such as, work experience. Providing supervision for young workers, and monitoring their progress, will help employers identify where additional adjustments may be needed. Employers must inform the parents or guardians of any child known, of the possible risks, and the measurements put in place to control them. So, a young person, who is not a child, can carry out work involving these risks, if the work is necessary for their training. The work is properly supervised, by a competent person. The risks are reduced to the lowest level, so far, as reasonably practicable. Other issues you may need to consider, and take into account, when employing young people, are biological agents, working with chemicals, this might be somebody who's working as a cleaner. Working with the lead and lead processes. Working with explosives, including fireworks, asbestos, compressed air, construction, demolition, electrical, agricultural, manufacturing. Remember, unless under work experience, young workers shouldn't be working in industrialized work places, like, sites, such as factories or construction. So, things to remember. Remember, with young workers, the breaks, okay? The extra hours of breaks. Making sure they're supervised. The working hours. Watching, they're not being exploited. Making sure they're having their breaks. And making sure they have that break, between the working hours. Making sure they are taking their holiday entitlements. Making sure that they're supervised and trained, and that you've got proof of that. It's all right, me telling you all this, isn't it? If you're not keeping this paper trail, and documenting it, so that you can defend you. Because you could have an accident with a young worker. You can have a fatality. But because you've got the right things in place, like, the proper supervision, the training and the induction, you've got proof of that delegation of responsibility, and authority. We can prove that you are innocent. And you may not be prosecuted. Remember, young workers are a breath of fresh air. Why not have a buddy scheme, get a young worker to buddy up with another worker? Maybe somebody that's actually feeling, maybe, a little bit tired in their job? And it might give them a new lease on life. It works for both people. Remember, young workers are our future. Don't be scared to employ young workers. They are the future of today. And understand the rights and law, that accompany the young workers. Great. They are, they create great, great work ethic for years to come. And our young, today, if they get the right employ, in the beginning. And I have to put my hats off, to my first supervisor. When I started at Hertz Rental Car, that gave me the opportunity, within six weeks of starting, to work full-time. And to be trained in a extremely responsible job, because she saw something in me. I have to say to you, though, within my YTS period, I really pulled out all the stops to shine, because I really wanted this job. I knew that it was perfect for me. So I kept my nose clean. Worked late. I worked really hard. And I worked, really, particularly hard to get that job. And you'll get people like that. And you really want to look out for them. Invest the time, and the effort, and you'll get a brilliant worker that's committed to you. That you can say, "Look, she's been with us, since she was 16. She's now 40. He's been with us, since he was 18. We've trained him, we've seen him as a young lad. He's now part of the business, he's one of the directors." Invest time with that person, and effort, and watch them grow. It's very, very rewarding. I hope you've enjoyed my webinar, today. Thank you.